Is the player order the same every turn?
Yes. Once the initial order of players is determined, it stays
the same throughout the game. Some have suggested this causes
inequities for both early and later players, but we addressed that
with the way we interpreted the purchasing round (see below) and via
the optional house rules regarding turn order.
What are the House Rules regarding turn order?
There will be two optional settings for handling turn order.
The first, Random Turn Order,
causes a dice roll to happen at the end of each turn (after the production
round) to determine the player who goes first during that turn (overall
player order is the same as the initial dice roll). The second,
Rotating Turn Order,
simply rotates, in the order determined by the initial dice roll,
who goes first. For example, if the initial order was Doug,
Greg, Hal, then the 2nd turn would be Greg, Hal, Doug, third turn
Hal, Doug, Greg, etc.
Does a player purchase and place his new units before the next player
According to the initial version of the board game rules, the answer
is yes. However this can be unfair because the earlier players
are at a disadvantage because they can't respond to actions of other
players (however they do have an advantage when it comes to revolting
and westernizing natives). The computer makes it easy to use
another method, one that was originally developed as a Donohoe Digital
house rule: the Plan & Reveal
purchase phase method. This method has been officially approved
by Glenn Drover for use as the default method in the computer game.
Reveal works as follows: Each player does his/her purchases
effectively at the same time, but those purchases are not revealed
until all players are done. In other words, when you are purchasing,
you don't know what the other players are going to do. We think
this reflects more accurately what the time was actually like: it
simulates the "simultaneous" nature of planning for war.
It also removes any advantage from the early players who could revolt/westernize
before anyone else and to later players who could respond to the purchases
an impact on how native westernizing and revolts are handled, which
we address below.
impact on technology is that inflation application is clarified.
Since any discovery of "inflation" happens after all players
production has happened, inflation isn't applied until the next income/production
round and affects all players equally. Any other technologies
discovered are of course applicable immediately.
wish to play this way using the board game, then you can do one of
two things: Use the "honor system" and trust that
people are honest about what they purchase and where they intend to
place the pieces. The other, for more sensitive purchases (e.g.,
westernizing, revolting, etc.) requires that you write down where
those events occur to avoid disputes. It all depends on how
much you trust your friends :-). For example, you don't want
someone pulling out a new city from a region they forgot to westernize
the second they see you revolted there!
What happens if a player pays to westernize his region at the same
time that another player pays for a revolt?
We decided to view funds spent to westernize and incite revolt on
equal footing. Each goes towards convincing the natives to do
a particular thing. We figured that the natives would split
in their decision, going in equal numbers to each source of funds.
westernization and one or more revolts are applied to the same region,
a battle still happens. However, the native force is reduced
by ratio of the westernization force to the revolt force: 1/(1
west + # of revolts).
the owner westernizes and one player pays to revolt, then 1/2 of the
natives would be convinced to westernize and 1/2 would be convinced
to revolt. Thus the computer reduces the native revolt force
by 1/2 (rounding up any fractional units to the nearest integer, regardless
of the fractional value, which is different than the calculation used
to round fractional PPs as described in Q39). If two players
paid for revolt, then the native force is reduced by only 1/3rd.
If three players paid for a revolt, then the force is reduced by 1/4th.
suppose in a rare case, the owner of Persia decided to pay to westernize
the force of 10+ natives. But two other players paid for a revolt
during the same purchasing turn. The resulting battle will be
against a native force of 10 * (2/3) =~ 7 infantry and 5 * 2/3 roundup
=~ 4 cavalry.
player wins the battle, then the natives are indeed westernized.
Otherwise all is lost.
When is a native revolt battle fought?
On the turn of the player that owns the region the revolt happened
in, after all movement happens (in other words, along with the other
battles and exploration that player does).
Can I move forces into the revolting region on my movement turn?
Yes. We felt if you had pieces in a neighboring region, you
could choose to help them fight the revolt.
After a revolt has been declared, can I move pieces out of that region
before the battle is fought (related to Q6)?
Yes. Similar to A6, we figured you could move pieces
out from a revolt, except of course at least one piece is required
to be left behind. However, you may not move
Army pieces out of a revolting region into an adjacent enemy or native
region to fight a battle. The rationale is that you would not
have time to properly organize a battle in another region due to the
distraction of the ongoing revolt. You may only move out to
one of your own regions (think of it as a pre-retreat). Likewise,
you may not move out of a revolting region onto a ship (just like
you cannot retreat back onto a ship during a battle).
Explorers may be moved to another region to explore or onto a ship.
Engineers may be moved onto a ship. The rationale for these
exceptions is that the explorer and engineer represent individuals
and these can easily slip away from a revolt (versus an army piece
which represents hundreds or thousands of people).
After a revolt is declared, can another army move into that region
before the owner fights the native battle?
We decided to allow this, with the following clarifications.
First, the invader has to be at war (of course). 2nd, the invader
1st fights the other players army. Assuming that battle is won,
then the invading army has to then fight the native revolt (immediately,
on the same turn). Finally, if it also happened to be the case
that the original owner had paid to westernize at the same time (as
explained in Q4), and the new owner defeats the natives, then the
westernization still takes effect. Our reasoning is that even
though the new owner didn't pay for the westernization, the natives
don't really care which imperialistic empire controls the government
as long as they get nice schools and roads, etc. The money was
spent and takes effect.
probably rarely happen, but the rule is here just in case!
In the "plan and reveal" purchase mode, two players can
buy a fort for the same native region and not realize it. Isn't
that a bummer?
Yes, this is true. The native region only gets one fort, and
still defends at +1, but it is probably pretty nice as it cost twice
as much to build. Perhaps a little table talk with allies could
Why would I want to buy a fort in a native region after all?
And why can I do it anywhere?
If a native region stands between you and an enemy, and they have
a 12++ marker, then a fort just makes it that much harder to take
via battle. It is a nice buffer. As for why you can buy
a fort anywhere in the world, even if you aren't remotely close to
that part of the world, the answer from Glenn is that historically
all it would take is sending an "advisor" to help the natives
put the fort together. Sending advisors around the world didn't
require much effort (the British did it all the time) and therefore
doesn't necessitate rules limitations involving proximity to an existing
region or fleet.
Please clarify the +/++ next to the number on native markers.
In a battle, the number represents the quantity of native infantry
that will fight in an invasion or revolt. A single + means the
natives have (in addition to the infantry) a cavalry force equal to
1/2 (rounded up) the number of natives. Two pluses (++) means
they have this cavalry force plus an artillery unit. For example,
if you have a 9++, this equals a native force of 9 infantry, 5 cavalry
and 1 artillery.
In the case of a tie during an attack, do you re-roll to determine
the winner or is it the next players turn?
A tie is considered the result of the attack and the next player goes.
If a tie happens during a native attack, the pieces sacrificed for
the human wave are still lost!
If natives are beaten during a battle, do you still need to westernize
Yes. They are part of your empire, but not necessarily happy
about it. They can still revolt unless you spend the PPs to
Can I buy a port and a ship (next to the new port) at the same time?
Can I buy a school and an engineer/leader/artillery at the same time
(assuming the city already exists).
No to both - any requirements for purchase must exist prior to the
purchase round starting, so new purchases don't count.
Can I buy an engineer and get a discount on a building at the same
time? Can I buy a city and a school at the same time (in the
No. By the same logic as A14, an engineer must pre-exist before
a building can be bought benefiting from it. Same logic follows
for a school. Since a city bought at the "same time"
as the school would not already exist, the school cannot be purchased.
Does a school purchased on the same round as a technology purchase
count towards the Discover Rating?
No, since the technology rating is calculated at purchase
time, it cannot take into account any new school purchases. This also
applies to the number of tech rolls you get. You don't get to purchase
2 tech rolls until the Spend Production Points phase after the one
in which you purchased the necessary number of schools.
Is the factory:city ratio of 2:1 a strict ratio of only 2 factories
to an individual city or a general ratio of all factories to all cities?
The ratio is all factories to all cities. For example, it is
correct to have 1 city with 3 adjacent factories and a 2nd city with
1 adjacent factory, for a total ratio of 4:2 = 2:1.
Can either player retreat at any time after 1st two attacks happen?
Or do I have to wait until after every 2 attacks, so each player gets
a chance to attack?
Either player can retreat after the first two attacks have happened.
For example, after the invader attacks once and the defender returns
an attack, either can retreat. If none chooses to and the invader
attacks again, the defender still has the option to retreat instead
of returning fire.
Can I carry over unspent PPs to my next purchasing
Yes, you may carry over any number of PPs, except for the initial
purchase round in which you must spend as much as possible.
The reason the board game did not allow this was due to lack of room
in the box for paper money!
The rule book does not match the summary card regarding the placement
of artillery, leaders and engineers. Do these require both a
City and a School or just a School?
Both a City and School are needed (in the same region) to buy and
place an artillery, leader or engineer. This is important because
you could conceivably have a school by itself from the initial purchase
Can I have multiple explorers in a native region?
No. The computer game limits the number of explorers in a region to
one, except when unloading from a ship, because you could move the
extra explorer(s) from the unload spot to explore multiple regions.
A Factory not next to a City doesn't generate PPs, but does it affect
the calculations for Railroads, Ports and Victory Point?
Yes, non-PP producing factories are included in the calculations for
rail, port and victory points.
What happens if I conquer a region and gain a Factory and that Factory
places my ratio over the 2:1 limit?
You may keep it and it does produce PPs, but you cannot buy additional
factories until the ratio is correct.
Can engineers move through native owned regions with explorers?
Can multiple leaders move through with explorers for exploration?
No. The rules state only one leader may assist an exploration,
so we restrict the number of leaders to one when in a native region
with an explorer.
Do forts defend against a native revolt?
Yes. The owner of the region is considered the defender for
a native revolt.
Do forts defend against invaders in a native battle (i.e., help the
natives when they are invaded)?
Yes. A fort in a native region adds +1 to the natives roll.
Are ships allowed in the Caspian sea?
No. While the computer game could allow it, it seems silly to
How does destroying building/undeveloping work?
One army piece (infantry, cavalry, artillery or leader) must be "assigned"
to each building being destroyed or resource being undeveloped.
These assigned pieces cannot move during that turn. At the end
of the players movement/battle phase, the buildings are considered
destroyed and removed from the board.
Can I go into the Black Sea if Ottoman is owned by the natives?
The rules state that the owning player has to give you permission.
We figure the natives can't be bothered to stop you, so the answer
The rules state a leader adds +1 to the roll during exploration.
Why does the computer game use +2?
The rules were wrong as explained in the errata
section at Eagle Games.
If I have two adjacent regions, with only 1 piece in each of them,
can those pieces swap places?
No. A region cannot be left empty, even temporarily.
You can swap these pieces if you have a 3rd from somewhere else to
act as a place holder while they move.
Can the natives use the human wave during both the attack and defense
during a battle?
No. Human wave is an "attack" and can only
be used during the attack phase of a battle.
Can the natives sacrifice any army piece (infantry, cavalry or artillery)
during a human wave attack?
Yes. Each piece sacrificed, regardless of type, adds
a +1 to the battle roll.
Do players need to be at war to fight a ship battle?
No. They can occur at any time.
Suppose two opposing ships end up in the same sea region, but neither
wants a battle. They both stay in the same sea zone, acting as a buffer.
Later on (possibly several turns later), when one of them decides
to move out of the sea zone, does the other still have the option
of starting a battle?
No. A sea battle may only be started when a ship enters a
sea zone for the first time or when it is a player's turn (he/she
is the one moving).
Suppose a ship is blockading a port and the owner of the port buys
ships during their production round and places them in the same region
as the blockading ship. The owner of the port goes first and wants
to have a ship battle. Does the owner of the blockading ship have
the option to move out and not battle or does a battle occur?
The blockading ships can not move away. They must fight.
See the rule clarification above. The only time a sea battle can occur
is when a new ship moves into a sea zone (then any player with a ship
in the zone may declare a sea battle) or if the moving player wants
a sea battle in a sea zone that already contains his ships.
How come I can't unload from a ship after a battle is declared?
Can't I fight a land battle after the sea battle, assuming I win (like
in Axis and Allies?)
No. After a battle is declared, all further movement
of the ship is prohibited. Since unloading is considered a ship
movement, that isn't possible. If you win the battle and those
ships survive, you may unload on your next movement turn.
What happens to fractional PPs left over after an inflation reduction?
The computer game rounds up, which is defined as adding .5
to the result and truncating. For example, if you had 65 PPs
and the inflation was 1/2, you would end up with 65/2 = 32.5, rounded
up is 32.5 + .5 = 33.0, truncated = 33. However, if you had
64 PPs and the inflation was 1/3, you would end up with 64/3 = 21.3333,
rounded up is 21.3333 + .5 = 21.8333, truncated = 21.
Can a player incite a revolt in their own region?
No. As Glenn says, "It's unnatural. As in, 'Please
slaughter all of our women and children, we don't like this colony
What is the Rich World house rule?
With this turned on, the number of resources with value on
them that are part of the pool is increased 50%. For example,
instead of having only 2 tokens with 12 - Diamonds, you now have 3.
This means that more of the regions should have resources. To
implement this at home, you can convert some of the blank tokens by
writing on them or you can purchase
extra markers from Eagle Games for about $3.00 (the total pool of
markers should total 90, so if you do purchase more markers, simply
replace blank token with 1 of each type from the new set).
What is the Weak Natives house rule?
With this rule turned on, there are no native markers with
11 or 12 on them. To implement this at home, simply remove all
the markers with 11 and 12 on them before distributing them to empty
If a Leader helps with an exploration and the roll fails, is the Leader
eliminated along with the explorer?
Yes. Kind of harsh, isn't it?
The rule for calculating Railroad PPs says "Each Railroad produces
4 PP's for each City, Factory, Port, or Resource (with a value greater
than "0") that is in a region adjacent to or in the
same region as the Railroad and in the player's empire".
Does this mean other buildings can be in the same region as a Railroad?
No - a railroad may not share a region with a city, factory
or port (it may have a fort however). The "in the same
region" applies to a developed resource, which may be in the
same region as a railroad (or any other building for that matter).
Is it permitted to move from the Ottoman region to The Balkans?
Yes (see map clarifications on page 38 of the manual).
Eagle's website allows you to purchase white and black armies to allow
7 and 8 player games. What is the Number
of Starting Regions for 7 and 8 Player Games?
3 starting regions for each player in 7 and 8 player games.
Do forts and schools count towards the VP count?
Yes (all buildings count, even factories not adjacent to
Do Developed Resources count towards the VP
Yes, each developed resource is worth 5 victory points.
This is not specifically mentioned in the manual, but Glenn said that
developed resources should be counted along with buildings.
Do the Standard rules regarding "reserves" for land battles
apply in the Advanced rules?
If I use an army piece to destroy a building can I move the rest of
the pieces out of the region on the same turn, thus leaving the one
destroying the building as the one fulfilling the "must have
one in a region" rule?
What is the new rule regarding Blockades?
Glenn felt that the rule on Page 34 of the manual regarding blockades
was too punitive. The new rule is summarized as follows:
For each port that has at least one "at-war" enemy ship
adjacent to it, 10 PPs are deduced from the income of the owner of
the port (up to 50% of the total PP income). Clarifications:
- If more
than one port (owned by the same player) is adjacent to the same
sea zone with the ship, the deduction is still only 10PPs.
The idea is that the sea zone is blockaded, so the number of ports
on the sea zone is immaterial.
- If more
than one port (owned by different "at-war" players) is
adjacent to the same sea zone with the blockading ship, the deduction
is 10PPs per player. Again, since the sea zone is blockaded,
all "at-war" players with ports on the sea zone are affected,
but again for only 10PPs.
- If more
than one ship is in the sea zone, the deduction is still only 10PPs.
The number of ships in the blockade doesn't impact the deduction
- If you
have a port adjacent to 2 sea zones, and both have blockading ships,
the deduction is still only 10PPs since one port cannot be blockaded
can have multiple blockades in effect against an "at-war"
player if each port has a dedicated ship to blockade it and those
ships are in separate sea zones.
total deduction for blockading cannot be greater than 1/2 of the
players PP income.
The manual stated that you have to declare a blockade, however the
rule the computer game is going to use is that blockades are automatic
and the deductions are handled automatically. The rationale
behind this is that we couldn't come up with a reason why someone
would not want to declare a blockade against an at-war opponent.
Does the +1 for having a fort affect both attack and defense rolls
in a battle?
Yes. When your region with a fort is invaded, you get +1 on
all rolls (i.e., when you pick the pieces and when your opponent
picks the pieces).
After failing in an exploration, can I send in another explorer on
my next turn?
Yes. You may keep doing so until you (a) get lucky (b) run out
of money or (c) throw the dice out of the window. Note:
you may only explore once per movement round (in other words, you
can't send in 3 explorers and try 3 times).
The rules for destroying and undeveloping state that an "Army"
must be used. Does this mean I can't use explorers or engineers?
Yes. Army pieces are those used in battle: Infantry, Artillery,
Cavalry and Leaders.
After inflation is discovered, does it effect just the next round
or all rounds after the discovery?
Inflation is in effect for all rounds after it is discovered.
The rule book is unclear about whether inflation discovered by the
1st player affects the 2nd player in their calculations. Our
interpretation of the rule is no: We figure all players generate
income at the same time, so the purchasing part of the production
round is spending "old" income. The manual says inflation
affects "New Production Points". So we take that to
mean any income earned at the end of the next round.
How many Army pieces can a ship transfer between two regions that
are adjacent to the same sea zone (i.e., when the ship doesn't have
to move)? For example, From India to Arabia via the Persian
Only 5. A ship can basically load a maximum of 5 Army pieces
per movement phase. You can unload pieces from a previous movement
phase if they are still on the ship and then load more on. However,
the maximum number of Army pieces that can be loaded onto a ship during
one movement turn is 5.
The rules state I have to have at least one army unit in each region.
Do explorers and engineers count towards this?
No. Only Army pieces (infantry, cavalry, artillery and leaders)
may satisfy the "at least one per region" rule.
What is the new rule regarding Ship Purchases
in Sea Zone with Existing Ships?
One of the oft talked about rules issues is the ability to purchase
a ship, place it into a region where there are ships belonging to
other players (e.g., someone blockading a port) and then using that
ship to load/unload Army pieces before the other players have a chance
to act. In a recent test game, this was the beginning of the
end for one of the players.
with Glenn, we decided to treat the placement of a new ship in a sea
zone the same as moving a ship into a sea zone. Any player with
ships already in that sea zone have a chance to declare a battle before
the purchasing player can do anything with it (just as if an existing
ship had been moved into the region from somewhere else). If
a battle is declared, then that ship cannot move or load pieces -
it must fight the battle!
case: If two players both buy a ship in the same sea zone, then both
are considered to have "entered" and both, on the other
players turn, have the ability to declare a battle before allowing
movement or loading/unloading.
What is the new rule regarding Canals?
The computer game will implement a new technology called Canals, which
board game players are free to implement as well. The
new technology appears above Advanced Engineering on the technology
chart (and this is its only pre-requisite). When this is discovered,
the Suez Canal and Panama Canal (on North/South America expansion
map) are built and usable. The owner of the Egypt region controls
access to the Suez. The New Granada region controls access to
the Panama canal. The rule is similar to passage to the Black
Sea (through the Dardanelles Strait). If natives own the controlling
region, then passage is allowed. If a player owns the controlling
region, their permission is required to pass through the canal.
If I have two or more regions with battles against an opponent and
those battles are adjacent to one another, and the 1st goes poorly,
can I retreat into the 2nd battle region?
No. You can only retreat into an area of yours that is not currently
in battle. An area is considered "in battle" if any unresolved
combat is occurring, including native uprisings.
If i'm an attacker and I want to retreat from a battle, can I retreat
to any of my regions?
No. You can only retreat into an area that one of your armies came
from (and all must retreat to the same area). A defender, however
may retreat to any of their areas (provided a battle is not occurring
If inflation is discovered and I have PPs in the "bank"
at the end of the purchasing round, does that get reduced by the inflation
No. Inflation only affects new income.
This section answers some frequently asked questions about the computer
version of War! Age of Imperialism.
What platform(s) does the game run on?
Windows 98/2000/Me/XP, Mac OS X and Linux.
Where can I purchase the game?
Through the Eagle Games online store as well as most major computer
Is the game written in Java?
Yes, we are using JDK1.4.1 as the primary platform for the games.
10.2/Jaguar users will need to install the Jaguar
Java 1.4.1 update.
10.3/Panther users should not need to upgrade because Java 1.4.1
is part of Panther. However, some Panther users may have an incomplete
install and should install the Panther
Java 1.4.1 update.
Is it be distributed as a standalone executable or require an external
VM (virtual machine) to run?
On the PC and Linux, the game is distributed as a standalone, complete
executable and will not require an external VM. It is installed
with a typical installer and launched from the Start menu or desktop.
The normal game player will not be aware or need to know about the
use of Java or a particular JVM.
Mac, the game is installed using a typical installer and launched
from the Applications folder like any other Mac application (see note
in Q3 about Java 1.4.1 update requirement).
Is there a central server set up in order to facilitate locating other
There is a central server to facilitate on-line play, such as storing
moves while a player is offline and directing interaction between
on line players.
have liked to add other features such as player matching, ranking
and tournaments to the central server, but we didn't have the time,
resources or money to finance the cost of operation.
How is combat handled in the online games? How about the natives in
Hot Seat and Online games?
The player most affected by online battles is the defender.
There are two options - control your own battles, where battle choices
alternates from player to player. The other option, if the game is
played in a more asynchronous manner, is to allow the computer to
control your battles. The computer will play as the AI players do
in Hot Seat mode, including choosing to retreat if the odds get too
plays the natives in the case of revolts and native battles and makes
judicious use of the "human wave"!
Are players able to transition from online mode to offline mode and
back to online mode?
Can an online game be saved so that it can be continued at a later
Can games be recorded so that they could be reviewed later?
Are you going to be looking for testers?
Beta testing is currently closed - thanks to all that volunteered.
Are there built in chat functions or is an external program (such
as AIM or ICQ) required?
Yes - built in chat is there, including the ability to direct a message
to a specific player or players (for alliance type discussions).
Is there a configurable option to time limit games?
No. However, games may be limited to a certain number of turns, which
is a good way to limit the length of the game. In addition, turns
in the computer game take far less time than in the board game, so
it is possible to get further along in a game in a shorter amount
Can War! Age of Imperialism be played on a LAN?
Yes. However, each computer on the LAN is required to have access
to the internet, their own copy of War! Age of Imperialism and access
to their email account. Here's why:
All War! online games are coordinated through a central server (the
War! Game Server), which is located on the public internet and managed
by Donohoe Digital.
When you start an online game, you ("the host"), choose
the number of players and specify an army color and email address
for each player. You then register with the War! Game Server to start
the online game. The War! Game Server creates the game information
on the server and an email is sent to each player inviting them to
join the game. The email contains the game ID and a password for validation
When a player receives an invitation email, they then start their
copy of War! Age of Imperialism and enter their email address, game
ID and password. The War! Game Server authenticates the user as part
of the "join" process.
After joining, the War! Game Server then coordinates the game amongst
all the players. It relays chat messages, moves and other game information.
If a player is off-line, the information is stored until they sign
on again. Without a public server on the internet, it would be impossible
to support the offline or "asynchronous" method of play.
Another reason we used a public server on the internet is to support
players who have NAT (network address translation) home networks or
play the game from behind a firewall (e.g., at work or a home firewall).
Previous online board games like Axis and Allies did not work well
across the internet in such scenarios because you were required to
enter an IP address, which in the case of some home users are non-routable
or inaccessible. The War! Game Server architecture supports the most
widest possible range of internet network configurations.
Thus, LAN play is possible, but each computer still need access to
the internet and each player needs to be able to bring up their email
to get the game id and password.
How do I get support for War! Age of Imperialism?
Please post any questions to Donohoe
Digital's Discussion Forum.
Your questions will be answered as soon as possible (our goal is to
answer them within 24 hours, but most are done sooner!).